Einfache Vergangenheit (simple past)

Funktionen der einfachen Vergangenheit

Das 'simple past' wird verwendet, um vor der Gegenwart abgeschlossene Handlungen zu beschreiben. Die Dauer ist nicht wichtig. Die Handlung kann in der nahen oder fernen Vergangenheit liegen.

Beispiele
  • John Cabot sailed to America in 1498.
  • My father died last year.
  • He lived in Fiji in 1976.
  • We crossed the Channel yesterday.

Der 'simple past' wird immer verwendet, wenn man sagt wann etwas geschah, er steht in Verbindung mit einigen Zeitangaben.

  • Häufigkeit: often, sometimes, always
    I sometimes walked home at lunchtime.
    I often brought my lunch to school.
  • genauer Zeitpunkt: last week, when I was a child, yesterday, six weeks ago
    We saw a good film last week.
    Yesterday, I arrived in Geneva.
    She finished her work atseven o'clock
    I went to the theatre last night
  • undefinierter Zeitpunkt: the other day, ages ago, a long time ago People lived in caves a long time ago.
    She played the piano when she was a child.

Bemerkung: 'ago' ist ein nützlicher Ausdruck, um die Distanz in die Vergangenheit auszudrücken. Es steht nach der Zeitspanne: a week ago, three years ago, a minute ago.

Achtung: Die einfache Vergangenheit im Englischen sieht der Zeitform im Deutschen ähnlich, die Bedeutung kann aber unterschiedlich sein.

Die einfache Vergangenheit bilden

Regelmässige Verben im 'simple past'
Bejahen
Subjekt + Verb + ed  
I skipped.  
Verneinen
Subjekt + did not + Infinitiv ohne 'to'
They didn't go.
Fragen
Did + Subjekt + Infinitiv ohne 'to'
Did she arrive?
Verneinende Fragen
Did not + Subjekt + Infinitiv ohne 'to'
Didn't you play?
To Walk
Bejahen Verneinen Fragen
I walked I didn't walk Did I walk?
You walked You didn't walk Did you walk?
He walked He didn't walk Did he walk?
We walked We didn't walk Did we walk?
They walked They didn't walk Did they walk?
'Simple past' von 'to be, to have, to do'
Subjekt Verb
  Be Have Do
I was had did
You were had did
He/She/It was had did
We were had did
You were had did
They were had did

Bemerkungen zu bejahender, verneinender und Frageform

Bejahend

Der Affirmativ des 'simple past' ist einfach.

  • I was in Japan lastyear
  • She had a headache yesterday.
  • We did our homework last night.
Negativ und Frageform

Um die negative und die Frageform im 'simple past' zu bilden, verwendet man "do" als normales Verb und als Hilfsverb "do", z.B. We didn't do our homework last night.
Die Verneinung von "have" im 'simple past' wird meistens mit dem Hilfsverb "do" gebildet, manchmal aber auch mit 'not' oder der Verkürzung "n't".

Die Frageform von "have" verwendet im 'simple past' das Hilfsverb "do".

Beispiele
  • They weren't in Rio last summer.
  • We didn't have any money.
  • We didn't have time to visit the Eiffel Tower.
  • We didn't do our exercises this morning.
  • Were they in Iceland last January?
  • Did you have a bicycle when you were young?
  • Did you do much climbing in Switzerland?

Bemerkung: Für die negative oder die Frageform aller Verben im 'simple past' wird das Hilfsverb'did''verwendet.

Unregelmässige Verben im 'simple past'

Hier einige der häufigsten im 'simple past' unregelmässigen Verben.

to go
  • He went to a club last night.
  • Did he go to the cinema last night?
  • He didn't go to bed early last night.
to give
  • We gave her a doll for her birthday.
  • They didn't give John their new address.
  • Did Barry give you my passport?
to come
  • My parents came to visit me last July.
  • We didn't come because it was raining.
  • Did he come to your party last week?